Prevalence of tuberculosis in Hadramout Al-Sahel, Yemen: A 1-year cross-sectional study
Keywords:Acid-fast bacilli, Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, Prevalence, Pulmonary tuberculosis
Background: There is a lack of adequate data about the prevalence and types of tuberculosis (TB) disease in Hadramout Al-Sahel, Yemen. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence, types, and outcomes of TB disease in Hadramout Al-Sahel, Yemen. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the National TB Program (NTP) center in the city of Al Mukalla, Hadramout, Yemen. The study enrolled TB patients from different districts of Hadramout Al-Sahel who had registered at the NTP center between January 1 and December 31, 2021. Results: A total of 127 new active TB cases were recruited, including 102 (80.3%) with pulmonary TB (PTB) and 25 (19.7%) with extra PTB (EPTB). The overall prevalence of TB disease in 2021 was 12.7 new TB cases per 100,000 population, while the median age of the study population was 38 years. The majority of cases (23.6%) belonged to the age group of 35–44 years. There were 85 (66.9%) males, and most patients (74; 58.3%) were identified in Al Mukalla City. EPTB was detected in 25 (19.7%) patients, with pleural effusion being the most frequent manifestation, found in 12 (48.0%) patients. All patients received 4-agent anti-TB therapies; 99 (77.9%) patients received anti-TB therapy for 6 months; 9 (7.1%) patients received anti-TB therapy for 9–12 months; 8 (6.3%) patients died during treatment; and 11 (8.7%) patients were lost during follow-up. The majority of patients (108; 85%) were cured on completion of treatment. Conclusion: The prevalence of TB in Hadramout Al -Sahel was 12.7 cases per 100,000 population. Males were affected more than females; the pleura was the most commonly affected extrapulmonary site; and 85% of cases were cured. The results indicated the need to support the Al Mukalla NTP center, by providing more resources for improved TB reporting and for conduct of surveillance to detect new TB cases among high-risk groups. Health authorities are also urged to provide state hospitals with the equipment needed for TB diagnosis.
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