Indian Journal of Child Health <pre><strong>ISSN:</strong> <strong>p-ISSN</strong> - 2349-6118; <strong>e-ISSN</strong> - 2349-6126 <br /><strong>Discipline:</strong> Pediatrics and Neonatology<br /><strong>Starting Year:</strong> 2014<br /><strong>Current volume:</strong> Volume 7<br /><strong>Issue per year:</strong> 12 (monthly)<br /><strong>Editor-in-chief:</strong> Dr. Girish Chandra Bhatt, India<br /><strong>Indexing:</strong> Index Copernicus, EZB, BASE, World Cat, Journal Guide, Google Scholar<br /><strong>E-mail: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> </strong></pre> en-US (Dr. Girish Chandra Bhatt) (Dr. Rashmi Agrawal) Tue, 14 Sep 2021 13:08:55 +0530 OJS 60 Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in an adolescent girl presenting as atypical Kawasaki-like illness associated with coronavirus disease-19 <p>During the current pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, multiple cases of a new condition in children have been reported with multisystem involvement associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, requiring intensive care admission. The World Health Organization has defined it as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents. Here, we report a similar case of a 15-year-old adolescent who presented with clinical features of Kawasaki-like illness along with multisystem involvement. The echocardiogram suggested the presence of coronary artery dilatation and the patient responded well to Intravenous immunoglobulin. Hence, pediatricians need to be aware of this condition in children with multisystemic involvement and these patients need to be treated as early as possible since they may deteriorate quickly.</p> Meghmala Sadhukhan, Ranjit K. Joshi, Prabin P. Pahi Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Elizabethkingia meningoseptica –An emerging infection: A case report <p>Elizabethkingia meningoseptica are Gram-negative rod bacteria that are commonly found in the environment. The bacteria have also been associated with nosocomial infections, having been isolated on contaminated medical equipment, especially in neonatal wards. Rapid diagnosis and early institution of appropriate therapy for prolonged period are essential for the management of such infections. Here, we report a case of bacteremia due to E. meningoseptica in a neonate who was presented with respiratory distress and seizure episodes. A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was made based on clinical findings and examination of cerebrospinal fluid. The baby was treated with antibiotics and other supportive measures, that helped to improve the condition. During follow-up, the baby showed developmental delay with hydrocephalus. E. meningoseptica can cause severe infection, with high risk of mortality and neurological sequelae in neonates. Intensive care and multidisciplinary interventions are crucial for the case management. Awareness among clinicians along with correct diagnosis in microbiology laboratory is required to minimize the fatal outcome associated with this infection.</p> K Favas, A Bindu Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Regional disparities in prevalence of obesity among school-aged children in Egypt: A country case study from The Eastern Mediterranean Region <p>Background: This study is a review of recent research conducted in Egypt on the problem of rising prevalence rates of obesity among school-aged children. Methods: The search was conducted in three phases. The key words used were obesity, overweight, school-aged children, and nutritional status specifically for Egyptians over the past decade (2010–2021). Online research sites and the libraries of the Egyptian universities of the websites were searched along with on-site visits to the libraries of thesis universities and other research institutes in Egypt, to obtain full research material. Finally, retrieved data were analyzed statistically. Results: The search identified 24 studies that covered 15 governorates and one national survey that covered 25 governorates. The prevalence of obesity in the pooled populations was 10.6%. Prevalence rates of obesity were highest in Lower Egypt (LE) (10.0%) and urban governorates (9.2%) compared to Upper Egypt (UE) governorates (6.3%, p&gt;0.05). Obesity in the children over 10 years was slightly higher among females in the urban (5.1%) and LE governorates (5.2%) compared to males (4.1 and 4.8%, respectively). However, it appeared higher in males (5.2%) compared to females (3.2%) in UE governorates (p&gt;0.05). Conclusion: Obesity in Egypt is rising and is related primarily to high consumption of unhealthy foods. Member states must take active steps to regulate marketing of unhealthy foods to children.</p> Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Azza Abul-Fadl Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Complementary feeding practices in children aged 6-23 months: An institution-based observational study <p>Background: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices in children may lead to adverse consequences ranging from growth failure to mortality. Intervention programs intending to optimize the practices should be based on identification of the lacunae and on the assessment of the magnitude of the problem. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine appropriateness and adequacy of complementary feeding given to children aged 6?23 months. Materials and Methods: Data regarding demographic profile, maternal education, source of information for feeding, and details of complementary feeding provided in the last 24 h were obtained from caregivers, using the standard WHO questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for determining the association between optimal feeding practices and continued breastfeeding, age-group, maternal education, and source of information. Results: The study enrolled 480 children (mean age: 12.9+5.1 month; male: female=1.22:1). 225 children (46.87%) had minimum meal frequency and 66 (13.8%) had minimum dietary diversity, 41 (11.08%) were receiving minimum acceptable diet. Only 103 mothers (21.5%) obtained the information regarding recommended complementary feeding practices from health professionals. There was a significant association between health professional being the source of information and presence of adequate dietary diversity (p&lt;0.01) and minimum acceptable diet (p&lt;0.01). Conclusion: Complimentary feeding practices are inadequate and thus, require an intervention of healthcare providers with better involvement.</p> Kshitij K. Munde, Sushma U. Save Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Impact of coronavirus pandemic on mental health of children <p>Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced the children to stay indoors and minimize social interaction that has impacted their mental health. Aim: This study aims to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on children. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, ESIC PGIMSR, Basaidarapur, New Delhi, in the month of June 2020. Parents of children aged 6–17 years were asked to answer a questionnaire comprising questions from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition scale and questions regarding COVID-19 pandemic which were structured by the authors. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Among the 150 responses, 57% were boys and 43% were girls with mean age of 11.62±3.5 years. The most common source of information about the pandemic was a family member (80%). About 99.7% of children were worried about getting infected. Inattention was the most common psychiatric symptom (49%), followed by mania (29%), anxiety (23%), and depression (23%). Predisposition to substance abuse and suicidal thoughts was majorly observed in adolescents. Conclusion: The pandemic is definitely causing psychosocial impact on children. The government and community need to be aware of such effects so that they can be dealt well in time.</p> Jyoti Bagla, Mahima Rajan, Ananya Maheshwari, Sangeeta Chaudhry, Anand Prakash Dubey Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Leukocytic picture in pediatric Coronavirus Disease-19 infection <p>Background: Coronavirus is a large family of enveloped single-stranded zoonotic RNA virus, causes a wide spectrum of disease including Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). It is a systemic disease where immunological response has been cited as the most important parameter for both COVID-19 related death as well recoveries. Among all the blood parameters, leukocytes play the most important role in mounting an immune response. COVID-19 being a novel virus has enough literature on its leukocytic picture in adult population which is being lacking in pediatrics study. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the leukocyte picture of COVID-19 positive pediatric populations admitted in Assam Medical College and Hospital. Methods: An observational study was conducted on COVID-19 positive pediatrics patients (Age &gt;1 month–12 years) as detected by rapid antigen test/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and whose blood samples could be sent for investigations. Patient’s status and leukocytic picture at the time of admission were studied. They were followed up till discharge. Results: A total 54 COVID-19 positive patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age group was 8±2 years and gender was male predominant. Out of 54 patients enrolled in the study, 38.89% had lymphocytopenia, 25.9% neutropenia, 24% normal blood picture, and 12.96% had leukocytosis. Four patients expired and 50 patients were discharged. Neutropenia was found in 100% of the mortalities. Conclusion: Lymphocytopenia is the most commonly found deranged blood parameter. Neutropenia when found in COVID-19 positive pediatrics population, signify poor prognosis.</p> Pranoy Dey, Rhitwika Das Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Increased incidence of chronic lung disease and respiratory sequelae in growth restricted versus appropriately grown preterms <p>Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 5–10% term gestational age pregnancies. When accompanied by prematurity, FGR infants have significantly greater risk of perinatal morbidity and/or mortality compared to non-growth restricted preterm infants. Aim: Current study aimed to ascertain the incidence FGR among premature infants and its association with respiratory morbidity. Methods: Institution database for preterm infants of 23–31+6 weeks of gestation was accessed. FGR infants were compared with gestation/sex matched appropriately grown infants. Results: During the period 2016–2018, 973 infants between 23 and 31+6 weeks gestation were admitted amongst whom, 206 (27%) were FGR. Between 28 and 31+6 weeks gestation, approximately 1/3rd were FGR. Gestation and birth weight of the FGR and appropriately grown cohorts were 30.2±0.2 versus 30.1±0.2 weeks (p=0.8) and 1132±43 versus 1499±54 g (p&lt;0.0001), respectively. While antenatal steroids, surfactant, mechanical ventilation, sepsis, and ductal therapy were comparable, respiratory outcomes were significantly worse in the FGR cohort (duration of respiratory support: 37±10 vs. 23±5 days [p=0.016], home oxygen: 24 [11.6%] vs. 8 [3.8%]; [p=0.005] and chronic lung disease [CLD]: 53 [25.7%] vs. 28 [13.6%], [p=0.002], respectively). The odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for developing CLD and for home oxygen when born FGR were 2.2 (1.3–3.6) and 3.2 (1.4–7.4), respectively. Conclusions: In spite of comparable postnatal variables, FGR infants had significantly greater respiratory morbidity.</p> Kartik Sehgal, Kunal Sehgal, Kenneth Tan Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 The role of lung ultrasound in preterm neonates with respiratory distress in neonatal intensive care unit <p>Introduction: Up to 29% of late preterm babies suffer from respiratory distress due to which they need to be admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Point-of-care ultrasound is a useful tool in critical neonate care, providing valuable information without any risk of ionizing radiation to the newborn. Materials and Method: This mono-centric, descriptive, and prospective study was conducted in NICU. Preterm newborns of less than 36 weeks with respiratory distress at birth on non-invasive ventilation were recruited. A lung ultrasound was performed at first 12 h of life and followed till their discharge. Main outcomes need for surfactant treatment. Results: Sixty preterm infants (median gestational age: 29 weeks) were recruited. Newborn in the surfactant group requiring ultrasound and intervention was significantly higher than in no surfactant group (p&lt;0.0001). In 15 newborns who received surfactant, the first dose was administered at a median age of 4.5 h. In 13 of these 15 newborns, the lung ultrasound scan was subsequently repeated an average of 2 h (Standard deviation or SD: 2) On average, the second dose of surfactant was administered at 24 h of life (SD: 9). Conclusion: Early lung ultrasound in preterm infants with respiratory distress appears to be a useful tool with no adverse effects for the patient. It allows a better assessment of respiratory distress by detecting patients with a greater risk of requiring surfactant or mechanical ventilation, even before oxygenation criteria.</p> Sidhant Swarup, Rakesh Panigrahi, Suryakanta Swain, Hemant Agrawal Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 A review of the emerging pandemic of obesity in preschool children in Egypt: Exclusive breastfeeding is protective <p>Introduction: Early exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) without foods or formula milk (FM) is recommended for the first six months of life, for optimum growth and development. Aim: This study aims to review studies in Egypt on nutritional status of preschool children by type of feeding. Methods: A two staged study was done: First; research was obtained from the Egyptian university libraries consortium ( on overweight, obesity stunting, and wasting in preschool children. We filtered 18 thesis fitting the criteria of the study. Next, analysis was done to compare EBF versus FM. Results: Comparison of nutritional status of children aged 6–59 months among formula versus EBF was as follows: Overweight 5.4% versus 3.45%, obesity 13.8% versus 5.65%, stunting 21.6% versus 1.15%, and wasting 9.7% versus 0.85%, respectively. Obesity and overweight were higher in males, whereas stunting and wasting were higher in females irrespective of mode of feeding. Early and extended formula feeding, foods before 6 months of life, packed foods, canned drinks, and low activity are risk factors for obesity. Colostrum feeding, exclusive and longer duration of breastfeeding, healthy food intake, and fruits and vegetables are protective. Studies report that deficiency of micronutrients is common with obesity. Conclusions: Prolonged formula feeding and unhealthy food intake are risk factors for the emerging and growing problem of obesity. Policies and legislations are needed to encourage exclusive breastfeeding and control marketing of unhealthy foods.</p> Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Azza Abul-Fadl Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Etiological profile of short stature in rural Rajasthan <p>Background: Short stature is one of the most common referrals to pediatric endocrinology clinics. Approximately 3% of children in any population are found to be short. Aim: This study aims to determine the etiology of short stature and their frequency of occurrence in 2–18 years old rural pediatric population and to classify the patients with short stature using anthropometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (age: 2–18 years) were diagnosed with short stature and admitted in pediatric ward. After meticulous history collection and complete physical examination, relevant investigations were performed in all the study subjects. Appropriate statistical analysis was carried out with the collected data. Results: Out of 400 study subjects, 70.50% were boys (male: female=2.33:1). Majority (n=241, 60.5%) of the affected children were in the age group of 2–&lt;6 years and 7–&lt;10 years. Of the 400 study subjects, 95% of cases (n=380) were classified as having proportionate short stature and the rest (n=20, 5%) had disproportionate short stature. Undernutrition (n=117, 29.25%) and familial short stature (n=90, 22.50%) were the leading causes of short stature. Conclusion: The current study helped to determine the etiological profile of short stature in children of adjoining rural population and in devising appropriate strategies for management and prevention.</p> Ashwini Singh, Rupesh Masand, Chaman Ram Verma, Yograj Khinchi Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530