Eastern Journal of Medical Sciences 2021-05-16T11:51:40+0530 Sayan Bhattacharyya Open Journal Systems <pre><strong>ISSN: e-ISSN</strong> - 2456- 2785<br /><strong>Discipline:</strong> All Medical, Surgical and Dental Specialities<br /><strong>Starting Year:</strong> 2016<br /><strong>Current volume:</strong> Volume 5 <br /><strong>Issue per year:</strong> 4 issues<br /><strong>Editor-in-chief:</strong> Dr. Sayan Bhattacharyya, India<br /><strong>Indexing:</strong> Index Copernicus, Journal Guide, Research Bible, World Cat, Sherpa Romeo, Google Scholar<br /><strong>E-mail: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a> </strong></pre> Knowledge, attitude, and practices of insulin use among type 1 diabetes patients in North India – A cross-sectional study 2021-01-18T11:00:14+0530 Manisha Gupta Shivendra Verma Saurabh Agarwal <p>Background: Prevalence of Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is increasing world-wide. A thorough understanding of the insulin administration including correct injection techniques, proper storage, insulin dose adjustment, meal timing, site rotation, and compliance are necessary for optimal treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of insulin use and its effects in T1DM patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional observational questionnaire-based survey was carried out among 105 T1DM patients at a tertiary care hospital during August to September 2020. A questionnaire consisting of 32 questions was formulated to assess the knowledge of diabetes, awareness of insulin use along with attitude and practices of insulin use. The responses were scored, converted into percentages, and summarized with descriptive statistics. Results: The mean scores in Knowledge, Attitude and Practices domains of KAP were 25.5±7.8, 2.6±3.9, and 8.9±1.7, respectively. We found deficiency of knowledge regarding type of insulins (31.4%), side effects of insulin (78%), and insulin injection sites (37%). Around 43% subjects had a negative attitude toward insulin and 35% were prone to use clumped insulin, 65% of subjects were aware of correct insulin injection techniques, and 77% were aware of correct insulin timing while 68.5% were aware of insulin handling during travel. Conclusion: There is an unmet need to enhance KAP domains of T1DM care and insulin administration, as the deficiencies in each domain are quite prevalent despite long term insulin use. Regular interactions with patients in the form of group meetings, patient to patient interaction and live demonstrations may alleviate fear of injection, poor compliance and incorrect techniques.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Knowledge, attitude, and practices of the healthcare workers regarding 2019 novel coronavirus disease – A questionnaire study 2021-02-01T11:17:44+0530 Ashna Bhasin Poonam Loomba Abha Sharma Bibhabati Mishra Sulmaz Reshi <p>The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in India has affected over 8.14 million people and is a major concern for the people and governments across due to its impact on individuals as well as on public health. The present study striven to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices of healthcare workers (HCWs) toward COVID-19 in a super specialty center. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was carried out among 100 HCWs belonging to the different cadre and specialties of a Super specialty hospital in North India. Questionnaire focused on the awareness, attitude, and possible practices toward ensuring safety for themselves as well as breaking the chain of transmission. A convenient sampling method was used for data collection and descriptive statistical analysis was carried out to assess the data. Results: Of the 100 participants, 52 were male and 48 were female mostly belonging in the age group of 25–40 years. Most participants (80%) used social media to obtain information on COVID-19. More than 80% of the respondents knew and practiced different precautionary measures. However, about 31% cases were associated with poor attitude and practices of COVID-19. Conclusion: Most HCWs surveyed were well informed about novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and took adequate measures in preventing the spread of infection. However, continued professional education is advised among HCWs to curtail the spread of this disease.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine, betadine, and probiotic incorporated glass-ionomer cements – An in vitro study 2021-02-01T11:24:34+0530 Amreen S Patilla Ahana Shetty Ashish S Shetty Alif S Patilla <p>Addition of antibacterial agents to conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) eliminates the recurrence of decay around margins of restoration by inhibiting growth of microbial colonies. Objective: The objective of the study was to comparatively evaluate the antibacterial activity of GIC impregnated with betadine, probiotic, and chlorhexidine (CHX) powder against Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Chlorhexidine, betadine, and probiotic powder were added to GIC powder to achieve 2.5% CHX-GIC, 2.5% betadine-GIC, and 2.5% probiotic-GIC formulation. Fuji-IX GIC was used as a negative control. The powder and liquid were mixed and inserted in to the wells punched in agar plates. The antibacterial activity of cements was assessed at day 1, day 7, and day 15 using agar diffusion method. Results: There was no inhibition zone present on bacterial plates with control GIC. On day 1, mean inhibition zone against S. mutans was highest with probiotic-GIC (11.70±0.48 mm), followed by betadine-GIC (10.70±0.48 mm) and CHX-GIC (2.70±1.9 mm). On day 7, mean inhibition zone with probiotic-GIC was 5.30±0.83 mm, betadine-GIC was 3.50±0.71 mm, and CHX-GIC was 1.8±1.03 mm. No inhibition zone was observed with any group on day 15. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a significant difference in the inhibition zones on day 1 and day 7 with probiotic-GIC (p=0.0001) and betadine-GIC (p=0.001). Significant difference was observed between groups using Kruskal–Wallis test and post hoc Bonferroni tests (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: Probiotic-GIC, betadine GIC is more effective against S. mutans. With its enhanced antimicrobial effect, these cements can be considered as an alternative to the conventional GIC’S.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Impact of bone scintigraphy and exposure dose on red blood cells with proposed solutions 2021-02-19T10:51:22+0530 Ghada Abker Edam Sakin Mohammed A. Ali Omer Mohamed Elfadil Mohamed Gar-Elnabi Abdoelrahman Hassan Ali Bakry Badria Awad Elamin <p>Background: Nuclear medicine (NM) technology is as indispensable field, is being widely used in research as well for diagnostic/staging purposes. However, it is also associated with potential hazards of radiation especially among radiation practitioners. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of NM exposure doses of bone scintigraphy in red blood cells and to propose a recent technology to be incorporated in NM and radiology technologies. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out among 75 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy between 2014 and 2018. A blood sample of these patients was characterized using transmitted light microscope and obtained data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: There was a decrease in the RBCs% and hemoglobin (HGb) count with the increment of interval time of bone scintigraphy (p=0.3). The average applied radioactive (Methylene Di-phosphate/Technetium-99m) dose of 15±2.9 mCi reduces RBCs and HGb count insignificantly by 3.56% and 3.1%, respectively. With an increased dose of 20±5.8 mCi and after interval time of bone scintigraphy, the histological changes in RBCs such as loss of biconcavity, increased diameter (10±0.4 ?m), developed spikes (anisocytosis and poikilocytosis) were observed. Conclusion: The proposed robotic intelligent system can be utilized partially while performing NM and other radiological examinations under supervision of specialists to prevent stochastic and non-stochastic effects among radiation practitioners.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Sessile serrated adenomas detection rate among the surgeons and the gastroenterologists: A retrospective analysis 2021-02-27T15:29:21+0530 Devisha Raina Rasika Hendahewa <p>Background: Sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) are flat or sessile benign lesions occasionally covered by a mucous cap and invariably lead to colorectal cancer. The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is recognized as an important quality measure for colonoscopy. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the ADR during colonoscopy among surgeons and gastroenterologists. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective analysis, all colonoscopies performed during July 2018–July 2019 at Caboolture Hospital, Queensland, Australia were included in the study. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the rate of sessile polyp detection among the gastroenterologist versus surgeons was investigated by calculating a correlation coefficient weighted by factors such as experience, colonoscopy intubation time, and removal of scopes. Results: A total of 3425 colonoscopies performed by 7 surgeons and 4 gastroenterologists were assessed. Among them, 58.7% colonoscopies were performed by the surgeons, while gastroenterologists performed 41.3% colonoscopies. The median age of patients was 56.5 years (25–88 years), more common in male than female (58.9% and 41.1%, respectively, p&lt;0.0001). The average withdrawal time among the surgeons and gastroenterologist was 8.05 and 8.54 min, respectively (p=0.02). Mean cecal intubation rate among the surgeons and gastroenterologist was 94.7% and 97.4%, respectively. Most patients had adequate bowel preparations; however, poor bowel preparation was observed among 6.15% gastroenterology patients and 5.6% in surgical patients. Conclusion: Based on the longer withdrawal time and improved skillset, sessile serrated polyp detection rate during colonoscopy was higher among the gastroenterologist as compared to the surgeons.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Role of tuberculin skin test (Mantoux test) as an aid in the diagnosis of tuberculosis disease and to identify persons with latent tuberculosis in highly endemic hilly region of Jammu and Kashmir 2021-05-16T11:39:09+0530 Nazia Tabassum Sheikh Sameera Akhtar Shazia Tabassum Sumat ul Khurshid <p>Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and one of the major diseases affecting children throughout the world. Mantoux test and direct microscopic examination of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by Ziehl–Neelsen staining are diagnostic and are widely being used. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Mantoux test and sputum smear examination as a diagnostic aid in latent TB. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted, among 100 suspected cases of TB, over a period of 14 months from May 2019 to June 2020. After obtaining informed consent, patients were subjected to all three diagnostic tests including the Mantoux test, sputum smear examination for AFB, and cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT). Results of Mantoux and sputum tests were compared with CBNAAT to assess the sensitivity and specificity of individual tests. Results: In our study, most of the patients (32%) belonged to the age group of 21–30 years. There was a slight female predominance in the study population (52% females and 48% males). Mantoux test was positive in 41 (41%) patients and negative in 59 (59%) patients. On sputum examination, 42 (42%) patients tested positive and 58 (58%) patients were negative. On CBNAAT, 74 (74%) samples were positive, 26 (26%) were found to be negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the Mantoux test were 49.35% and 86.95%, respectively, and 53.33% and 92%, respectively, for sputum smear examination. Conclusion: Mantoux test, sputum smear, and CBNAAT test when performed together act as an aid in diagnosing TB in patients with latent TB.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Missed abortion with a large fibroid challenging uterine evacuation – A rare case report 2021-02-15T17:07:32+0530 Neelam Chandra Yashwanth Kashyap <p>Fibroids in pregnancy are a commonly encountered clinical entity seen frequently in multigravidae than primigravida patients. Since they are usually asymptomatic, medical management is preferred which would delay the surgical enucleation until after delivery. However, the presence of fibroid may alter the uterine anatomy, which complicates uterine aspirations of abortions. In the present case report, we describe the laparoscopic enucleation of a large uterine fibroid followed by suction and evacuation of the missed abortion. This advanced laparoscopic approach is safe, it reduces the size of incision with subsequent postoperative scar and reduces intraoperative bleeding and aids in achieving good hemostasis. Thus, with safety and precautions, this advanced technique can be used in antepartum myomectomy.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Yq microdeletions and their current status in relation to Indian and Global scenario associated to male infertility: A mini appraisal 2021-05-04T18:06:44+0530 Nidhi P Shah Parth S Shah Rutvik J Raval Rahul Yadav Sandip C Shah Mandava V Rao <p>Background: Y chromosome microdeletions provide a pivotal role in the control of spermatogenesis. These are located on the q arm of it, specifically, the azoospermia factor (AZF) region, hence named as Yq microdeletions. The mutations in this region are related to testicular pathologies such as azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and other semen categories. Objectives: This study was undertaken to review these microdeletions, screening, and their correlation to semen categories in relation to the Indian and Global populations in context to male infertility, future strategies, and its implications. Methodology: These deletions are screened using sequence-tagged sites (STS) of the European Academy of Andrology (EAAs) and Non-EAAs with polymerase chain reaction technology. The data included were Indian and Global studies obtained from research articles, abstracts, and reviews (75) indexed in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus. Results: A number of total 45,562 Y chromosomes were analyzed. In India, this frequency contributes to 8.33% (453/5435) against the average frequency of 6.96% (3170/ 45562) worldwide. Globally, this frequency was higher (9.1%) in the North American continent. Among all types of deletions, AZFc deletions are higher followed by b, a, b+c, and others as well as are related to azoospermia than oligospermia and other semen cases/categories globally including India. In India, the data on partial deletions are scanty. Further, cases with AZFc are better suitable for assisted reproductive technologies after counseling. Conclusion: Evaluation of correct deletion type to a specific testis pathologic phenotype is suggested for sperm retrieval to correct the male partner. This study is hence better suitable for azoospermia with AZFc deletion around the Global and Indian scenario in association with male infertility. Future strategies are thus called for successful treatment of a specific microdeletion clinically in the male.</p> 2021-05-16T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021